Pearl of Wisdom
There are five things a judge must accept at face value: guardianship, marriage, inheritance, slaughtering, and witnessings. If the witness appears trustworthy, their testimony is permitted, and they should not be asked about their inner aspects.'
Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib [as]
al-Khisal, p. 311, no. 88
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"The judgment is only Allah's; He relates the truth and He is the best of those who decide" (Quran, 6:57).
Both "al-Hakam" and "al-Hakim" convey the same meaning; the origin of the first means the same as that of man`, prohibition, from which a word such as hakama, an iron rein piece used to restrain horses, is derived.
"Al-Hakam" means: the One Whose word is final in determining what is right and what is wrong, in distinguishing between acts of righteousness and those of sinning.
He rewards each soul according to what it earns, who decides between His servants as He pleases, who distinguishes between the wretch and the lucky, tormenting the first and rewarding the latter.
Al-Hakam is the precise Arbitrator, the absolutely correct Judge whose decision none can overturn, nor can anyone repeal His decree.
Al-Hakam is the One in whose promise there should be no doubt at all, in whose action there is no fault at all; He has decreed that the hearts must be contented and pleased with Him, that the souls must be submissive, obedient, to Him. He separates the truth from falsehood.
In Surat al-Ana`m, we read: "Shall I then seek a judge other than Allah? He it is who has revealed to you the Book (which is) made clear" (Quran, 6:114). In Surat Younus we read: "Follow what is revealed to you and persevere till Allah gives His judgment, and He is the best of judges" (Quran, 10:109). Other such references are:
Then who calls you a liar with regard to the judgment after this? Is not Allah the best of judges? (95:7-8) Judgment is only Allah's; on Him do I rely, and on Him let those who are reliant rely. (12:67)
There are many derivations from this word in various places throughout the Holy Quran. Among Allah's judgment with regard to His servants is that everyone will receive the rewards of what he earns, and that his endeavor will be witnessed, noted, recorded, preserved; those who do good deeds will receive eternal bliss, whereas those who sin will receive eternal damnation.
He makes righteousness the path to heaven and sinning the path to hell.
Shurayh ibn Hani has said that his father Hani ibn Yazid said, "I came to see the Messenger of Allah once and he heard people calling me `Abu [father of] al-Hakam.' He said to them, `Al-Hakam is Allah! Why are you named like that?!' I said to him, `Whenever my people dispute with one another, I judge between them to the satisfaction of both disputing parties.' The Prophet then asked me if I had any sons. `Yes. They are: Shuray, Abdullah and Muslim, sons of Hani.' `Who is their oldest?' the Messenger of Allah asked me. I told him it was Shuray. He then said, `You are Abu Shuray,' then he invoked Allah to bless me and my sons."