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Question : #685 Category: Holy Prophets
Subject: last sermon
Question: salam can you give me a full detail of the prophet swa last sermon. with authentic hadits and references thanks you.
Answer: Salaam Alaykum,

The Prophet's (sawa) last sermon is known the occasions related to Hadith al Thaqalayn.
First of these is the occasion when the Prophet (S) proclaimed it during his last hajj at Arafat. On this occasion, the Prophet (sawa) was accompanied by more than a hundred thousand Muslims.
The second occasion relates to his proclamation at Ghadir Khumm, during the course of his return journey to Madinah.
The third occasion relates to his proclamation in the Mosque of Madinah.
The fourth one relates to his pronouncement of Hadith al Thaqalayn in his chamber during his last illness. All these occasions lie within a period of ninety days and pertain to the Prophet's last days.

There are, however, many narrations of the hadith, in fact, most of them, which do not contain any clue about the time and place of its pronouncement. In the following are given instances of the narrations of Hadith al-Thaqalayn relating to each of these occasions, accompanied by the sources which record them.

1. At Arafat:
During his farewell sermon at Arafat, Prophet Muhammad (sawa) declared "I am leaving you two weighty things, if you follow them you will never go astray, they are the Quran and my Ahlul bayt". Sahih al Tirmidhi, v5, page 662-663, Al Tirmidhi states that the same tradition has been narrated by Abu Dharr, Abu Said, Zayd ibn Arqam and Hudhayfah ibn Usayd.
2: At Ghadir Khumm:
Al Nasai narrates from Muhammad ibn al­Muthanna, he from Yahya ibn Hammad, from Abu Uwwanah, from Sulayman, from Habib ibn Abi Thabit, from Abu al­Tufayl, from Zayd ibn Arqam, who said, "When the Messenger of Allah returned from the last Hajj and came down at Ghadir Khumm...
"Then he declared: 'I am about to answer the call (of death). Verily, I have left two precious things (thaqalayn) among you, one of which is greater than the other: the Book of God and my Itrah, my Ahl al­Bayt. So watch out how you treat them after me. For, indeed, they will never separate until they return to me by the side of the Pond.' Then he said, 'Verily, God is my master (mawlaya) and I am the wali of every believer.' Then he took Ali's hand and declared, 'To whomever I am his wali, this one is also his wali. My God, befriend whoever befriends him and be hostile to whoever is hostile to him.'" Abu al­Tufayl says: "I said to Zayd, 'Did you hear it from the Prophet(sawa)?' He replied, 'There was no one in the caravan who did not see it with his eyes and hear it with his ears.'"

3. In the Mosque of Madinah:
It is narrated that he (i.e. the Prophet) - upon whom be peace - said in the last sermon that he delivered during his illness:
"O people, I leave behind two precious things (thaqalayn) amongst you: the Book of God - which is a rope between Him and you, whose one end is in His hand and whose other end is in your hands ­ so act according to its muhkamat and believe in its mutashabihat; consider as lawful that which it regards as lawful and consider as forbidden that which it regards as unlawful - and my Itrah and my Ahl al­Bayt, who are the second thaql. So don't outstrip them (fa la tasbiquhum ), for then you shall perish." Abu Hayyan in his tafsir, al­Bahr al­muhit, i, 12; Ibn Hajar, al­Sawa`iq al­muhriqah, 75, 136; Yahya ibn al­Hasan, Akhbar al­Madinah with his isnad from Jabir, as cited in Yanabi` al­mawaddah, 40.

4. In the Prophet's Chamber During His Last Illness: Ibn Abi Shaybah, as cited by Al­`Isami in Simt al­nujum al­'awali, ii, 502, no. 136, has narrated the following tradition: The Messenger of Allah (sawa) said during his last illness: "Soon I am going to pass away and I have extended to you my plea of excuse. Lo, verily I leave behind amongst you two precious things: the Book of Allah , the Almighty and the Glorious, and my kindred (Itrah)." Then he took Ali's hand and raised it, saying, "This Ali is with the Quran and the Quran is with Ali. The two will not separate until they return to me by the Pond. Then I will ask the two as to how they were treated after me." al­Bazzaz, Musnad, as mentioned in Kashf al-astar, iii, 221, no. 2612;
Al­Azhari, Tahdhib al­lughah, ix, 78;
al­Khatib al­Khwarazmi, Maqtal al­Husayn (A), i, 164, from Ibn Abbas;
Ibn Hajar, al­Sawaiq al­muhriqah, 89, from Umm Salamah.
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That insight's peerfct for what I need. Thanks!
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