Pearl of Wisdom
when he was debating with an atheist, said, 'If you say that there are two gods, then they are either in complete agreement on everything or completely separate in all aspects. But when we look at this orderly creation, the continuous orbits, the alternation of night and day, and the sun and the moon, the soundness of the situation and the organisation and sound management of it indicates that the Director [of all creation] is One.' Then if you still claim that there are two gods, then there must necessarily be some kind of difference between them for them to be two [and therefore distinct from each other], and this distinguishing characteristic between them is itself eternal like them, so you are forced to accept three such beings. And if you hold that there are indeed three, then you have to admit the same thing that we said for two such that they [the three] necessarily have two distinguishing characteristics between them [to differentiate them from each other] so then there are five [such eternal beings] altogether, and thus does the multiplication continue until infinity.'
Imam Ja'far ibn Muhammad al-Sadiq [as]
al-Tawhid, p. 243, no. 1
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